What Don't We Know

Looking back over history at the advances in science and understanding, it really makes me wonder what we still don't know. What can we do to find out what we don't know? Is it possible to analyze the types of things we have discovered to find some sort of pattern which will clue us in to finding more?

One way to approach this is to look at the history of how discoveries were made. Especially the progression of discoveries and patterns which tended to lead to discoveries. Three examples of this are the Cosmos reboot with Neil deGrasse Tyson, The Science Class You Wish You Had, and The Lady Tasting Tea

My cousin once told me a story about his visit to a foreign country. I had asked him what the biggest differences in culture were and he told me that there were some concepts that were so foreign to the locals that they literally could not comprehend. Is it possible to reverse engineer this situation to find a technique for identifying things we cannot comprehend and begin to learn?